Book Review: The Remedy

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The Remedy

There are few business concepts which are applicable across any company in any industry. From solopreneurs to multi-national conglomerates, the principles of Lean Management are a tool to improve the culture of a company.

I recently got the chance to read “The Remedy” by Pascal Dennis, which is a real life story about how lean was applied across a large car manufacturer.

Lean is predominantly known to be a process to decrease waste within manufacturing processes. Through the travels of Tom and his sensei Andy, stories are told on how Lean Management is applied within non-manufacturing settings.  The reader is taken through a journey where common obstacles of dealing with a company that is heavily placed into silos, non-communitive, and insular culture are dealt with. You get the opportunity to see how Lean Management can be applied in the non-manufacturing departments of Human Resources, Marketing, Product Development, and Accounting.

The reader is introduced to many of the basic concepts and terminology of Lean Management (for example the 8 types of waste) in the style where Tom, the plant manager of the shining star of Taylor Motors, is taken from his current role to lead the development and launch of a new car, originally known as the Defiant.

If you want to learn more about Lean Management, this would be an ‘average’ book to pick up. The Japanese terminology is used throughout the book which can make things confusing at time. There are great animations throughout the book, but at times, too many. It gave the feeling that you were reading a Pictionary book at times.

I personally don’t see this book as being a good starting point if you are a novice to Lean Management. Lean is best learnt within a manufacturing setting since the subject matter can be visibly seen. The author previously wrote “Andy & Me” which details the journey of transforming a manufacturing plant towards being Lean. This book would be a good starting point.

Do you have any books about Lean and Lean Management that you recommend?

Have an awesome week.

Kevin

Kevin MacDonald is a Business Consultant at L6S Business Consulting Inc (www.L6SBC.ca). L6S offers services in management consulting, Controller and CFO contracting, and lean management with either project work or teaching/mentoring of staff. Kevin has his CMA accounting designation along with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma.

Kevin is active in the community by volunteering for the South Edmonton Business Association, the Fringe Festival, Goodwill Industries of Alberta and donates blood at the Canadian Blood Services.

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United, Airlines, Airports, Viral

Volunteering at United

The newest corporate public relations blunder now belongs to United Continental Airlines (United). I am sure that Pepsi is very happy to pass the hat onto another corporate citizen.

What Happened

It is ‘commonly known’, in some circles, that airlines will oversell their flights to ensure that they are full at time of departure. United follows the same practice. This practice came to a head for a flight from Chicago to Louisville on April 10th. United staff asked for 4 people to voluntarily give up their seats to accommodate the airline. 3 people volunteered while the 4th person was violently removed from their seat. From a memo off the desk of the CEO of United, Oscar Munoz, the person was ‘re-accommodated’.

Airlines commonly overbook their flights, for multiple reasons. According to the US Department of Transportation, in 2016, less than 1 in 10,000 were involuntarily bumped from the major US airlines. In 2016, this happened to United passengers at a rate of 0.43 per 10,000. It happened on American Airlines at a rate of 0.64 and at Southwest Airlines to 0.99 persons per 10,000.

Why Did It Happen

Overbooking happens for a number of reasons. None, however, can explain the events that occurred.

Resource Allocation: A flight leaving from Louisville had 4 members of its flight crew in Chicago. This is a reason why 4 seats were required. Did United not have any flight crews in Louisville that they could have used? Are their flight crews centrally located in certain locations or based off flight schedule and needs? Overall, did the schedule of the flight crews have then in the correct place?

Leadership: The CEO of United, Oscar Munoz, sent out a memo to staff after the event blaming the passenger for actions which is not seen in any of the footage that was captured. The CEO mention in the memo that the passenger was violent and belligerent. A properly written memo could have helped the situation but instead, gas was poured on the fire. If an employee of mine treats a customer that way, I would take ownership of the situation right away. It can be assumed that staff were not properly trained. That is a responsibility of the CEO. I understand that it was Chicago Airport Police that removed the person but United staff should have been trained on various methods to help get passengers to volunterily give up their seat. I have seen it happen effectively.

KPIs: United is a publicly traded company. Shareholders are constantly looking at the numbers to see how their investment is performing. Revenue per Available Seat and Passenger Miles Flown are key indicators on the health of an airline. Why does this create overbooking? If there is no passenger in the seat, the miles flown per passenger are negatively affected. When travelling, I have waited more than once for a fellow passenger to board the place. By overbooking, airlines are ensuring that there is a person in every seat.

Sensitivity: Consumers are rarely loyal to a certain airline. They will change airlines to save $5. If you don’t have any loyalty to an airline or are constantly purchasing the cheapest flight possible, you are increasing your chance of getting bumped out of your seat.

Legality: Airlines are allowed to overbook their flights and they are also ALLOWED to remove someone from a plane. In the purchasing contracts of Canadian airlines, however, it does not state how a person could be removed from the plane. Based on this assumption, the acts which happened on United are allowed and legal.

Internet Reaction

As you can imagine, the reaction from the Internet, specifically Twitter, was very fast. Videos of the event were online hours after the event occurred. It is possible that videos were posted even before the plane departed Chicago.

Social Media, Reaction, United, Overbooked

Some reaction from Twitter in regards to the United flight.

Stock Market Reaction

Shareholders of United firstly saw the event in a positive light by bidding up the price of the stock. When reading the headlines, the focus was most probably on the fact that United was overbooking their flights. A great problem for business is to have too many customers. As I am writing this the day after the event, United’s stock price has already decreased by 4%.

Overbooking, United

United’s Stock increase after word of event spread

Operating in the airline industry is not an easy task. There is a high capital investment along with the fact that one of your largest costs, jet fuel and airport fees, are largely controlled by third parties. Overbooking of flights is not something that will stop in the near future. Airlines have lost their sensitivity to consumer demands and views…mostly because consumers have trained them to be that way.  Even after dragging a bleeding and paying customer off one of their planes, United is still flying today and will for some time.

Did you know that airlines commonly overbook their flights? If you were a CEO of airlines, would you look at stopping the overbooking of flights? How would you do it so your financials are not compromised?

Kevin

Kevin MacDonald is a Business Consultant at L6S Business Consulting (www.l6sbc.ca). L6S offers services in management consulting, Controller and CFO contracting, and lean management with either project work or teaching/mentoring of staff. Kevin has his CMA accounting designation along with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma.

Kevin is active in the community by volunteering for the South Edmonton Business Assocation, the Fringe Festival, Goodwill Industries of Alberta and donates blood at the Canadian Blood Services.

Lose-Lose Relationship

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Everyone in Canada pretty much knows about the latest saga which is currently happening between our federal postal service, Canada Post, and its unionized postal delivery workers. At the time of writing this, the union was holding back from any labour disruptions…for at least a day.

The first labour disruption will involve the union workers not working any overtime hours in Alberta and the North West Territories. This arrangement will slowly roll out across the country. Per a radio interview that I heard, that amounts to just over one hour per week per postal delivery worker. Not a large disruption but it also makes you wonder why they have to work that much overtime over the whole system. That would be the subject for another few blogs since it is a pretty big topic.

I was talking to the postal delivery worker who is in charge of my community postal box last week. To say the least, she is not impressed since she does not know what is going on. As of Friday afternoon, the union had told her that they would be calling all workers Sunday night in regards to their work arrangement for Monday.

In talking to her, she said something that got me thinking. ‘This is a lose-lose situation. We are going to lose income while Canada Post is going to lose clients and revenue”. Currently, Canada Post delivers the last 5 kilometers of a packages’ travels for 66% of online transactions. Online retailers will need to look for alternatives or allow revenue to go to other retailers.

As in the case of many government policies, a labour disruption at Canada Post can be a disruptive event which will cause business to change their operations for long term sustainability.

Would a labour disruption at a postal service affect your company? How would you deal with it?

Have an awesome and productive week.

Kevin

Update as of September 6, 2016: Canada Post and the postal workers have come to a 2 year tentative agreement. Traditionally, they develop a 4 year agreement but the major issues were not fully dealt with. Hopefully, over the next 4 years, Canada Post and its union will be talking about solving their differences.

Update as of September 26, 2016: To my understanding, the vote still hasn’t been called by the union to see if the membership accepts the deal.

Kevin MacDonald is a Business Consultant at L6S Business Consulting Inc (www.L6SBC.ca). L6S offers services in management consulting, Controller and CFO contracting, and lean management with either project work or teaching/mentoring of staff. Kevin has his CMA accounting designation along with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma.

Kevin is active in the community by volunteering for different groups and donates platelets at the Canadian Blood Services clinic on a bi-weekly basis.

Kevin is hosting a workshop series known as Entrepreneurial Community Edmonton. The workshops cover different areas of business, including finance, human resources, and collections. You can find more information at http://www.l6sbc.ca/ecyeg.html

For help with your business, contact Kevin at kevin@L6SBC.ca or 780-868-1867. You can also follow Kevin on Twitter at @L6SBC or Facebook.com/L6SBC

Why Lean: Safety

Reasons for Lean: Safety

Lean management is a great way to get a better handle of your operations. As someone that helps companies put their processes on a diet to make them more manageable, I have heard just about any and all reasons why a company wants to implement lean.

Reasons I have heard go from their key supplier or customer is doing it, or they heard it is a great way to save money. Personally, I would consider those to be a weak reason for implementing lean. If the right reason and the right culture is in place, your company can avoid being on the bad side of a lean implementation statistic. I have heard from a number of sources that 80% of companies that implement lean revert back to their old habits after 5 years.

Few think safety when implementing lean. Safety of your employees can be a beneficiary of lean.

Re-work: If the amount of re-work you have to do decreases, it decreases the opportunity for a repetitive injury.

Hazards: With lean, and particularly the 5S exercise, you have a home for everything. When hoses are hung up or ladders are properly placed, it decreases the chance of someone tripping or having something fall on them.

Movement: When you are evaluating your processes during a lean project, there are some steps or movements that could potentially hurt someone. The review allows the evaluation and possible change of those steps so future injuries can be avoided.

What reasons can you think about why you should implement lean? I will blog about the reasons why I think a company should implement lean….and it is not about profit.

Have an awesome and productive week.

Kevin

Kevin MacDonald is a Business Consultant at L6S Business Consulting Inc (www.L6SBC.ca). L6S offers services in management consulting, Controller and CFO contracting, and lean management with either project work or teaching/mentoring of staff. Kevin has his CMA accounting designation along with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma.

Kevin is active in the community by volunteering for different groups and donates platelets at the Canadian Blood Services clinic on a bi-weekly basis.

Kevin is hosting a workshop series known as Entrepreneurial Community Edmonton. The workshops cover different areas of business, including finance, human resources, and collections. You can find more information at http://www.l6sbc.ca/ecyeg.html

For help with your business, contact Kevin at kevin@L6SBC.ca or 780-868-1867. You can also follow Kevin on Twitter at @L6SBC or Facebook.com/L6SBC

Book Review: Five Key Principles of Corporate Performance Management

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As many of you know, I am constantly in learning mode. I am looking to learn the different perspectives of various items to not only help me, but my clients.

Recently, I finished reading ‘Five Key Principles of Corporate Performance Management’ by Bob Paladino. Mr Paladino is a specialist in helping companies to set up Corporate Performance Management offices (CPM). The CPM is a mechanism which can be used to link your corporate strategy, process improvement, and operations.

The strategic side of the CPM deals with the handling of the strategy map and the balance scorecard. The strategy map, as the name implies, maps out your strategy from the perspective of key operational processes to the higher level executive strategy. The balance scorecard is comprised of a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) for each step of the strategy map. Based off the two strategy tools, operational improvement projects are identified to be worked on.

Mr. Paladino takes the reader through a number of case studies of actual work he has done as an employee or consultant. It is much appreciated to see how all of these tools (Strategy Map, Balance Scorecard, Lean, and Six Sigma) are used together to help improve a company.

The concepts delivered from the book are great but the book is hard to read. Not because it is too technical but some examples lack certain pieces of information which will help to put the pictures together. In other portions of the book, there are some concepts which are revisited a number of times which make it hard to read due to boredom.

If you are a lover of strategy or process improvement, there are better books out there for you. If you are interested to learn how the two can be placed together, this might be the only book for you to read.

What is your most favorite business book?

Have an awesome and productive week.

Kevin

Kevin MacDonald is a Business Consultant at L6S Business Consulting Inc (www.L6SBC.ca). L6S offers services in management consulting, Controller and CFO contracting, and lean management with either project work or teaching/mentoring of staff. Kevin has his CMA accounting designation along with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma.

Kevin is active in the community by volunteering for different groups and donates platelets at the Canadian Blood Services clinic on a bi-weekly basis.

Kevin is hosting a workshop series known as Entrepreneurial Community Edmonton. The workshops cover different areas of business, including finance, human resources, and collections. You can find more information at http://www.l6sbc.ca/ecyeg.html

For help with your business, contact Kevin at kevin@L6SBC.ca or 780-868-1867. You can also follow Kevin on Twitter at @L6SBC or Facebook.com/L6SBC

Leadership Part 6 of 6

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Over the last 5 weeks, I went over 5 of the most common reasons why companies are not successful, according to the Small Business Administration of the United States. You will see that there are some common elements to each of the 6. Feel free to look at the original article here.

Leadership is one of those terms used in business which can be considered a catch all. It is the reason why a project progresses or fails, why a product launch is successful or not, or why a company fails or doesn’t. Lack of leadership is the number 1 reason why a company fails.

In saying this, you don’t have to be the most charismatic, the best speaker, or the most visionary person to be a leader of a company. I won’t go into much detail of what is considered to be a strong leader. I am sure that you can find at least 1,000,000 articles on this subject to help you. But in terms of leadership and the success of the company, how does it have an impact?

Vision: Setting a vision for a company can be a scary task for some people. What if you set goals for your company? Setting those goals becomes a building block to what can turn into your vision in the future. Without that goal or vision, where are you going to be going? It becomes even more important when you have employees. Would you follow someone who is walking about in the great outdoors not knowing where they are going or why they are going for a walk? This ties in to having uniqueness with your company.

Plan:  Now that you have your goals set out, how are you going to reach them? Do you want to offer the best customer service? How are you going to do that? Is it scalable for when you grow? Offering a new product and/or service and believing that it will go viral is not a plan. A local businessman believed that his company was going to go viral once his product or services hit the market. He had no plan on how it was going to happen. To make a long story short, the company is just now starting to get traction in the market place, but nothing near as expected. Don’t forget: develop a budget with your plan.  You don’t want a lack of financial management to be the reason your company does not survive. The development of the budget will help to ensure that the business model which you will be operating under will be sustainable. Lastly, the plan will help to manage your future growth.

Execution: You now have a goal which helps you understand where you want to go and develop a uniqueness with your customer. You have developed a plan (including a budget) which tells you how to get there. Now, it is to sticking to the plan, wherever possible, to attain your goals. That plan, of course, will have some bumps in the road and may require change, especially if you are well connected with your customers and you are receiving feedback that change is needed.

As you can see, leadership or the lack of it is a bi-product of the other top 6 reasons why a company does fail.

Where have you seen strong leadership take a company through dark times to a profitable place? Have you seen leadership being the root cause of a failure? I would love to hear.

Have an awesome week.

Kevin

Kevin MacDonald is a Business Consultant at L6S Business Consulting Inc (www.L6SBC.ca). L6S offers services in management consulting, Controller and CFO contracting, and lean management with either project work or teaching/mentoring of staff. Kevin has his CMA accounting designation along with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma.

Kevin is active in the community by volunteering for different groups and donates platelets at the Canadian Blood Services clinic on a bi-weekly basis.

Kevin is hosting three social media workshops at 14920 Stony Plain Rd NW, Edmonton, AB T5P 3X8 (Pura Vida Mind Body Soul). The March 29, 2016 workshop will be about Facebook, April 26, 2016 will be about Twitter, while the May 24, 2016 workshop will be covering LinkedIn. All session run from 6.00pm to 8.30pm. Food and refreshments will be available. Contact Kevin to register.

For help with your business, contact Kevin at kevin@L6SBC.ca or 780-868-1867.

Growth & Expansion: Part 1 of 6

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Over the next 6 weeks, I will be going over the top 5 reasons why companies are not successful, according to the Small Business Administration of the United States. You will see that there are some common elements to each of the 6. Feel free to look at the original article here.

When someone starts a new full time business venture, in general, they want that venture to earn enough for them to live a comfortable life. When you start from nothing, and you want it to develop into something, growth is needed.

I have seen and heard a number of stats in regards to business and the need for growth. Some people say that if your company is not growing, it is dying. That would have to come with certain parameters. For example, there are not many companies that grow during a recession or an economic depression. The second interesting statement I have heard is that if a company has the same revenue level over a 2 year period, there is an 85% chance that the company will not exist 5 years from now. In other words, your company needs to be able to constantly grow to be able to survive and thrive into the future.

As you can tell, growth is a very important part of a business. Sadly, it is also considered to be the 6th most common reason why a company fails. You might be thinking now, how could a company fail that is growing? Very easily, there is no proper plan or research conducted.

Plan: What is the strategic plan with the new product or service? Who are your competitors? How are you going to differentiate your offering from others that are currently in the market? What is your budget and timeline for future viability of the product?

Research: With a new product or service that you are offering, are you actually fulfilling a market demand? What problem are you solving for the consumer? One reason why growth hurts company because no research is done in terms of the product or service they are offering and the target market. Asking your loved ones or friends does not constitute research.

Resources: Do you have the internal resources to be able to expand with a new product or service? Do you have to hire extra people? What will their skill set be like? How much will it costs to hire those people? Can your business model handle those costs? Do you have the internal capacity to make or deliver the product? Is a capital investment required?

I personally know a local Edmonton firm that underwent a parabolic growth profile. Sadly, their growth was not properly managed. Currently, this firm is letting go staff because their customers, new and old, became very displeased with the services they received. The decrease in revenue is not economically driven. They deliver an essential service and their customers are now spending their dollars with their competitors.

Have you seen growth backfire on a firm? How was it handled?

Have an awesome week.

Kevin

Kevin MacDonald is a Business Consultant at L6S Business Consulting Inc (www.L6SBC.ca). L6S offers services in management consulting, Controller and CFO contracting, and lean management with either project work or teaching/mentoring of staff. Kevin has his CMA accounting designation along with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma.

Kevin is active in the community by volunteering for different groups and donates platelets at the Canadian Blood Services clinic on a bi-weekly basis.

For help with your business, contact Kevin at kevin@L6SBC.ca or 780-868-1867

Do I Have to Really?

With the way that society is driven, everyone fits into a specific box.  People are introverts or extroverts. Shy or colourful. Talkative or quiet. There seems to be no grey area which is acceptable. A label must be tagged onto each person so we know how to deal with them best.

It is expected that people are either a morning person or a night owl. If this was the case, wouldn’t society set itself up for success? Wouldn’t that mean that businesses be closed or not operating during ‘non productive’ hours? In some way, you would have a morning crew and night crew, if you have the work and man power.

Morning Person

Observations that I have made tells me that people are mostly not morning or night people…but unmotivated to start out their day or comfortable. 1 out of 10 persons like to get up early in the morning, 2 out of 10 are most productive late at night, while the other 7 out of 10 people are able to be productive early in the morning or late at night[1].

Each person knows their own body the best. You know when you are most productive. Set your schedule to help maximize your productivity.

One of the benefit of waking up early is that you can get a lot of work done while others are sleeping. The same is true for a night owl. 8 out of 10 people are sleeping when night owls are working which is very close to the 9 out of 10 people sleeping while the morning person is working.

So what should you do?

Self-awareness: Pay attention to your energy level and mood during different times of the day. Find out when you are most effective.

Routine: Once you know when you are most productive, set a routine so you can take advantage of your premium productive time.

Communicate: Communicate with friends, families, and co-workers what your schedule is like. People will fully understand the need to maximize the productive of your efforts.

Would you consider yourself a night owl? A morning person? How have you tried to adjust your schedule? I would love to hear.

Have an awesome week.

Kevin

Kevin MacDonald is a Business Consultant at L6S Business Consulting Inc (www.L6SBC.ca). L6S offers services in management consulting, Controller and CFO contracting, and lean management with either project work or teaching/mentoring of staff. Kevin has his CMA accounting designation along with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma.

Kevin is active in the community by volunteering for different groups and donates platelets at the Canadian Blood Services clinic on a bi-weekly basis.

For help with your business, contact Kevin at kevin@L6SBC.ca or 780-868-1867

 

[1] https://www.nasw.org/users/llamberg/larkowl.htm

Are the Walls Moving?

Walmart somewhat surprised a number of people last week in closing 269 stores around the globe.[1] For many retailers, this would drastically effect the company but in the case of Walmart, the stores being closed only reflect 1% of total sales and square footage.  The majority of the stores being closed are of the small variety, while Walmart still plans to open over 135 larger format stores within the next fiscal year starting February 1. In total 16,000 people will lose their jobs due to this restructuring.

Seeing that the majority of stores being closed are of the small variety, it can be ascertained that Walmart is looking at decreasing their own internal costs by increasing the retail square foot per employee at a store.

Walmart has developed a poor reputation in numerous communities by driving prices down where local stores can’t compete and paying employees’ minimum wages. In many cases, this has increased the strain on the social services offered by governments. Walmart, somewhat to its own credit, has started to increase wages for its employees, at least in the States.[2] While Walmart has grown with the number of locations it operates, it has become harder for it to find employees to operate the locations.

As you can see, a large proportion of Walmart’s decisions are financially based. Of the 4 value propositions (low price, customer experience, product leadership, and quality), Walmart is competitimg with the proposition that many consider to be the weakest to defend. It should be noted that of the largest companies in the world. Walmart stands out as being possibly the only company that competes fundamentally on price to the consumer.

Has the value proposition undertaken at Walmart starting to hurt the giant? It is widely known that its suppliers are expected to decrease their unit costs over a set period of time.  Has that sponge been squeezed dry? With prices going up at other retailers, do this allow Walmart some availability to also increase their prices?

I recently read an article (you can find it here) stating that this could be the beginning of the end for Walmart. I see this as a small reorganization of the company. Walmart has closed stores in 2013 and has actually abandoned Germany as a market.

What are your thoughts on the Walmart store closures? Is this the beginning of the end?

Have an awesome week.

Kevin

Kevin MacDonald is a Business Consultant at L6S Business Consulting Inc (www.L6SBC.ca). L6S offers services in management consulting, Controller and CFO contracting, and lean management with either project work or teaching/mentoring of staff. Kevin has his CMA accounting designation along with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma.

Kevin is active in the community by volunteering for different groups and donates platelets at the Canadian Blood Services clinic on a bi-weekly basis.

For help with your business, contact Kevin at kevin@L6SBC.ca or 780-868-1867

[1] http://news.walmart.com/news-archive/2016/01/15/walmart-continues-sharpened-focus-on-portfolio-management

[2] http://www.wsj.com/articles/wal-mart-to-increase-wages-for-most-u-s-store-workers-1453315937

Engaging your employees…Is it all up to you?

The willingness to learn is a trait that all entrepreneurs need. There are constant learning opportunities from situations that you are in and the people you meet on a daily basis.

I love to read, and I will admit one reason I read so much, is to find good content for my social media accounts. Below, you will find a link to a Harvard Business Review article that I have recently read.

https://hbr.org/2015/12/engaging-your-employees-is-good-but-dont-stop-there 

The Coles Notes version of the article can be summed up like this:

Inspired employees are more productive than any other employee at any other emotion level. How do you get your employee inspired? Communicate the deep purpose and mission of the company to employees. If that is not working, have your leadership inspire them or take your leadership through inspiration training.

Highly engaged or inspired employees are more productive and are more willing to go above and beyond for their company, but there is one thing I question.

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Can an employee not inspire themselves? Should it be left to their leadership to get them motived and produce their best work? I understand, and have seen what strong leadership can bring to the table, but I have not seen it being sustainable over the long term by itself.

As many people in my network are a solopreneur as myself, you need to find that something that inspires yourself to be that inspired ‘employee’. It seems that it is expected that others should do things for you now.

Take ownership of your own attitude. Take ownership of level of work. Take ownership of the biggest thing that you and you only can control: YOU! You may think that others control you. They do…if you let them. Take yourself back and let yourself set the tone. Don’t allow people to make the decisions for you.

Have an awesome week.

Kevin

Kevin MacDonald is a Business Consultant at L6S Business Consulting Inc (www.L6SBC.ca). L6S offers services in management consulting, Controller and CFO contracting, and lean management with either project work or teaching/mentoring of staff. Kevin has his CMA accounting designation along with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma.

Kevin is active in the community by volunteering for different groups and donates platelets at the Canadian Blood Services clinic on a bi-weekly basis.